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​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Asthma is a lung disease characterized by narrowing of the airways causing repeated episodes or attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough. Asthma attacks can be triggered by factors including allergens (such as pet dander, dust mites, mold, pollens and food allergies), secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollution, exercise, strong odors and cold weather. Asthma is not contagious and anyone can have asthma at any age.

Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the US, affecting more than 20 million adults and 4 million children. Asthma is more common in females than males. Annually, asthma accounts for 13.8 million missed school days for children and 14.2 million missed work days for adults. Nationally, 8.1% of school aged childred (5-17), 8.2% of adults (22-64), and 7.2% of older adults (65+) have asthma. In Kentucky, 11.7% of adults and 6.8% of children have asthma. While asthma can affect anyone at any age, it is more common among blacks. In Kentucky, 13.6% of blacks have asthma compared to 11.3% of whites. Additionally, blacks are twice as likely to die from asthma-related illness as whites.

Asthma has no known cure, but it can be controlled. People with asthma can lead full, active lives with proper education, treatment and management. Asthma management is most successful when you:

  • Visit your doctor regularly,
  • Use long-term control medications and fast-acting rescue medications appropriately,
  • Avoid asthma triggers and
  • Work with your doctor to develop and use a written management and action plan.

Successful management and control of asthma results in better quality of life, fewer asthma attacks, fewer visits to the emergency room, fewer hospitalizations and fewer missed school or work days.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Coughing from asthma often is worse at night or early in the morning, making it hard to sleep.
  • Chest tightness can feel like something is squeezing or sitting on your chest.
  • Shortness of breath - some people say they can't catch their breath or they feel out of breath. You may feel like you can't get enough air in or out of your lungs.
  • Faster breathing or noisy breathing.

Inflammation causes airways to become constricted and narrow. Narrowing of the airways, called bronchoconstriction, produces shortness of breath, tightness in the chest, coughing and wheezing.

What Can You Do?


​​​​Remember: Taking care of your asthma is an important part of your life.


asthma action plan

A written self-management asthma action plan is useful for asthma patients. Health care providers prepare individualized plans detailing adjustments to patient medication based on their asthma symptoms and peak flow meter readings. This plan can help you know what to do during an acute increase in symptoms (an acute exacerbation). If you ever are in doubt about what to do during an acute asthma exacerbation, you should contact your healthcare provider.  ​

View a larger image of the sample action plan

Tobacco Prevention and Cessation

The use of tobacco in any form is a great health concern. Even if you don't smoke, reduce your exposure to secondhand smoke. If you use tobacco products, quit as soon as possible.

Control Your Environment

An important part of asthma management is to control contributing environmental factors. Common asthma triggers found in the environment include pets, molds, perfumes, dust mites and medications. Be aware of your asthma and symptoms, so that you can take action quickly at the sign(s) of an attack.

Working with your health care provider:

  • Learn about your asthma and how to control it. Work closely with your health care provider.
  • Use medicines as directed by your health care provider to prevent or stop attacks.
  • Get regular checkups from your health care provider.
  • Stay away from things that make your asthma worse as much as possible.
  • Follow your Asthma Action Plan and work with your health care provider on your plan.

EXHALE Strategies to Help People​​​​​​​ with Asthma

EXHALE is a set of six asthma prevention and control strategies to help people with asthma breathe easier. The evidence-based strategies are proven to reduce asthma-related hospitalizations, emergency room visits and health care costs. The EXHALE Strategies were developed by the National Asthma Control Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Kentucky Asthma Management Program uses EXHALE to improve asthma outcomes in the commonwealth.  Details and resources on implementation of the strategies can be found in the EXHALE infographic and EXHALE flyer​, created in cooperation with the Kentucky Environmental Public Health Tracking Network.

​The strategies are: 

  • Education on asthma self-management such as teaching people with asthma how to use medications correctly.
  • X-tinguishing smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke which can trigger asthma attacks that require emergency care or hospitalization.
  • Home visits for asthma trigger reduction and self-management education. including home environmental assessments to identify common asthma attack triggers such as cockroaches and mold.
  • Achievement of medical management objectives by using decision support tools such as treatment algorithms or reminders.
  • Linkages and coordination of care across settings to connect people with asthma to needed healthcare and social services.
  • Environmental policies or best practices to reduce asthma triggers from indoor, outdoor and occupational sources such as modifying older school bus diesel engines to run more cleanly and reduce air pollution.

CDC Guides on Using EXHALE can be used by:

  • Health care professionals,
  • Health care system executive leaders,
  • Managed care leaders and staff,
  • Medicaid and Children’s Health Insurance Program leaders,
  • People with asthma, their families and their caregivers,
  • Public health professionals, and;
  • Schools.​

Asthma Capitals 2023: The Most Challenging Places to Live With Asthma​

The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America released the Asthma Capitals 2023​ report to coincide with Asthma Peak Week, the third week of September each year, when a spike in asthma attacks and emergency department visits are seen. The report is intended to inform and raise awareness of the nationwide impact of asthma. The report analyzes data from across the United States and ranks the 100 largest cities where it is challenging to live with asthma based on asthma prevalence, asthma-related emergency department visits and deaths due to asthma. The report also highlights asthma risk factors that influence health outcomes, including poverty, air quality, pollen allergy, medicine use, tobacco policies, access to specialists and the rate of uninsured residents. ​​​Louisville, ranked 34 of 100 (average), is the only Kentucky city listed in the report. An improvement over the 2022 report which ranked Louisville as 17 of 100 (worse than average).

​Allergy Capitals 2023: The Most Challenging Places to Live With Allergies

The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America released the Allergy Capitals 2023​ report, which identifies the most challenging cities for seasonal allergies in the top 100 metropolitan areas in the continental United States. The report looks at five important factors: tree, grass, and weed pollen scores, over-the-counter allergy medicine use, and availability of board-certified allergists/immunologists. The purpose of the report is to raise awareness on the impact of seasonal allergies on health and notes the burden of seasonal pollen allergies falls heavily on the eastern and southern parts of the country. This report focuses on three topics related to seasonal allergies: self-care for allergic rhinitis, pollen sensors, and climate change and allergies. Louisville is ranked 89 of 100 overall (better than average - 37 of 100 for weed pollen, 84 of 100 for grass pollen, 95 of 100 for tree pollen), and is the only Kentucky city listed in the report. ​